Obtaining a doctoral degree in Germany
In Germany, doctoral degrees are conferred by universities or higher education institutions with equivalent status. This process is known as Promotion. Doctoral degrees are obtained through a specific process, during which an individual demonstrates his or her ability to carry out independent research. If the required examinations have been passed and all the formal prerequisites are met, the university or the faculty authorised by the university to award doctoral degrees confers the academic degree of Doktor supplemented by the appropriate field, e.g. Dr. rer. nat. or Dr. theol. Some universities also offer the academic degree of Ph.D.