Universities of the arts have a long tradition in Germany and are a historically significant part of the German higher education landscape. The first schools of art were founded in the 1660s, with the music schools following almost 200 years later in the 1840sUniversities of the arts
Founding of the universities of art
The university of art as a type of higher education institution has its origins in the state art schools, arts and crafts schools and work academies. These were established as schools for academic painting and as institutes for teacher training in artistic subjects. Between 1650 and 1750, five art academies were founded in Germany, which corresponded in character to the private provincial academies in Italy at the time, but not to the large art academies that existed in Paris and Rome. The oldest art school in Germany was founded by Joachim von Sandrart in Nuremberg in 1674/1675.
In the 1970s and 1980s, most German universities of art received their own right to confer doctoral degrees or the right to confer doctoral degrees in the academic disciplines. Some universities of art also have the right of habilitation.
Founding of the universities of music
The universities of music have their roots in the 1840s. The majority of them emerged from former conservatoires or municipal music training schools or were founded as new institutions. These foundations took place primarily in the context of the educational expansion of the 1860s and 1870s. Since the 16th century, the historical conservatoires have provided vocal and instrumental training for church music and opera. In the course of time, these developed into renowned training schools for music professions. The basic principles of the conservatoires – the combination of artistic activity or active participation in musical life and professional training – have been transferred to the type of higher education institution known today as a university of music.
The first university of music was founded in Leipzig in 1843 under the name "Conservatorium der Musik". Today, Germany's oldest university of music bears the name Hochschule für Musik und Theater "Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy" Leipzig. However, the term "Musikhochschule" or "Hochschule für Musik" was not used until more than two decades later: in 1869, the term first appeared in Berlin in the context of the founding of the "Königliche Hochschule für Musik in Berlin" (Royal School of Music in Berlin).
In the 1970s and 1980s, most German universities of music were granted the right to confer doctoral degrees or the right to confer doctoral degrees in the academic disciplines.