In Germany, doctoral degrees are conferred by universities or higher education institutions with equivalent status. This process is known as Promotion. Doctoral degrees are obtained through a specific process, during which an individual demonstrates their ability to carry out independent research.
If the doctoral work (dissertation, oral examination) has been successfully completed and all formal requirements have been fulfilled, the university entitled to confer the degree or the faculty commissioned by this university awards the academic degree of "Doctor" – supplemented by the respective subject area, e.g. Dr. rer. nat. or Dr. theol.